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ABCDETo complete the matrix:G Example: cells 1B, 2C, 3A, 4B, 5D could make up a solution package.COMPONENT DETAILSDesign ComponentDetailed Description.
Status QuoOPTIONS MATRIXDesign ComponentsPackages#HighMediumLow1. Elicit from the stakeholder group a set of components (attributes) desired for any proposed solution. Enter a short label for each in the Design Components column.4. Elicit from the stakeholder group potential solution alternative(s) for each component. Enter a short label for each in the Solution Options columns.Solution Options2
Instructions:Interest Identification Design Components1Instructions: S1. Copy over design component, priority, and status quo columns from options matrixm2. Complete individual packages in columns by selecting individual component options from the options matrix.jInstructions: Complete this form as needed. Design components should be populated from the Options Matrix.Package Solutions2Priority
Low  High
Medium  HighLow  MediumPACKAGE/ PROPOSAL MATRIXKEnter issue title (use title from Issue Tracking if applicable) in cell A5:DescriptionRevision HistoryVersionDescription of changesPosting DateCurrent Spreadsheet Version: +PACKAGE / PROPOSAL DETAILSPARKING LOTSOLUTION OPTION DETAILSCell #DCorresponding cell number from Options Matrix (ex. 1A, 1B, 2A, etc.)*Implementationl2. If needed, enter a more detailed description of each criteria on the "Design Component Details" tab (2a).{3. Using informal feedback from the participants, rate each component's priority in the final solution as "high/medium/low"q5. If needed, enter a more detailed description of each potential solution option on the "Option Details" tab 2b.6. Once the matrix is filled out, the group will attempt to select a single solution alternative (column) for each component (row) to form a solution "package", to be documented in tab 3, "Packages Matrix".9Instructions: List interests of all parties on this page.
Instructions: Complete this form as needed, including more detailed / expansive descriptions of options than the Options Matrix allows.
*Implementation should consider timing for both PJM and stakeholders (added as standard component based on Stakeholder feedback 2015)E
1Design Components  each is an "attibute" or "component" of any proposed solution. Consensus of the group should be sought on selection of a set of solution criteria. 2Solution Options  each is a solution alternative elicited from the stakeholder group that meet one of the specific solution criteria.Instructions: Complete this form as needed, including more detailed / expansive descriptions of package components than the Package Matrix allows.
VInstructions: Use this space to document any items not specific to another topic area.
]Instructions: Document all version changes to this matrix for easy identification of changes.
Enter Stakeholder Committee Name in cell A2: Cost Development Subcommittee4Incremental and No Load Offer Development (Bucket A)>Clarify formulas for incremental cost and no load cost in M159Apply consistent methodolgy in for cost offer development8Ensure cost offer development is as accurate as possibleNo Load equation definitionIncremental Offer equationIncremental heat rate equationUse of Peaking factor in offers8Tariff definitions of No Load Cost and Incremental Offer4aGoverning Document SectionM15, Section 2.5.3
All Market Sellers shall develop NoLoad Costs for their units. The noload heat input may be determined by collecting heat input values as a function of output and performing a regression analysis. The heat input values as a function of output may be either created from heat rate test data or the initial design heat input curve for an immature unit.
The minimum number of points to develop a heat input curve shall be 2 points for a
dispatchable unit with a variable output and 1 point for a unit with a fixed output.
Sufficient documentation for each generating unit's noload point in MMBtu s (or fuel) per hour shall consist of a single contact person and/or document to serve as a consistent basis for scheduling, operating and accounting applications PJM and the MMU can verify calculation methods used are in accordance with the currently approved Fuel Cost Policy and the elements of Attachment B.M15, Section 2.5.2:
The Incremental heat rate is the relationship between an additional MW of output and the heat input necessary to produce it. Graphically, the incremental heat rate can be determined from the ratio of the change in fuel input to the change in unit MW output; which is the slope of the input/output curve. Mathematically, the incremental heat rate curve can be expressed as the first derivative of the heat rate curve (input heat versus MW output). Incremental Heat Rate = " MMBtu/ " MW! = (C!ange in Fuel Going in)/(C!ange in Energy Coming Out) = (dy/dx) Total Heat RateM15, Section 2.1
The equivalent service hours shall be calculated based on history.
Equivalent Service Hours =
Cyclic Starting Factor*Number of Starts
+ Total Operating Hours at any load level
+ Cyclic Peaking Factor* Total Operating Hours above base load temperature limit
CTs shall use OEM supplied values for cyclic starting factors and cyclic peaking factors even if the CT technology is no longer being built. Only OEMspecified cyclic starting and peaking factors can be applied to the Maintenance Adder of the unit s costbased offer. If the OEM documentation does not specify a cyclic starting factor and/or cyclic peaking factor, then the cyclic starting factor and/or cyclic peaking factor shall be zero.YM15, Section 5.6.3 (Combined Cycle Units)
M15, Sect< ion 6.6.3 (Combustion Turbine Units)
Heat InputHeat Input equals a point on the heat input curve (in MMbtu/hr) describing the resource s operational characteristics for converting the applicable fuel input (MMBtu) into energy (MWh). Heat Input curves are typically obtained via plant performance testing or from the original equipment manufacturer. Heat Rate Average heat rate equationHeat Input Equation5a7The incremental energy equation is not specified in M151a1b6a6b4b4cSlope Offer RulesBlock Offer Rules2a2bNo Load rules for Slope OffersNo Load Rules for Block OffersNot defined in M152c4dManual 15, Sec 2.5.3 When using NoLoad Fuel to calculate NoLoad Cost, the Market Seller must submit block average cost and cannot select Use Offer Slope when entering cost information into Markets Gateway.Manual 15, Sec 2.5.3 When using the alternative incremental cost method to calculate NoLoad Cost, the Market Seller must submit incremental cost and select Use Offer Slope when entering cost information into Markets Gateway.No load Cost shall mean the hourly cost required to create the starting point of a monotonically increasing incremental offer curve for a generating unit.Incremental Energy Offer &No Load Fuel (Heat) calculation methodM15, Section 2.1.1 OATT
Incremental Energy Offer shall mean offer segments comprised of a pairing of price (in dollars per MWh) and megawatt quantities, which must be a nondecreasing function and taken together produce all of the energy segments above a resource s Economic minimum. No load Costs are not included in the Incremental Energy Offer.
Incremental Energy Cost Offer not defined.
Manual 15
The incremental energy costis the cost per MWh to produce all of the energy segments above the Economic Minimum level (minimum generation level with the unit available for economic dispatch). NoLoad Costs are not included in the incremental costs. It is calculated by summing the cost of each segment of energy in the unit s incremental cost curve up to the generation level. This cost is a dollar per hour ($/MWh) rate.
Incremental Energy Cost The incremental heat or fuel required to produce an incremental MWh at a specific unit loading level multiplied by the applicable Performance Factor, multiplied by the fuel cost plus the appropriate maintenance cost.v&OATT (Definitions)
M15, Section 1.7.3;OATT (Definitions)
M15, Section 1.7.4
M15, Section 2.3.4No Load Cost
1) The initial estimate of a unit s NoLoad Cost ($/Hr) is the NoLoad fuel Cost multiplied by the Performance Factor, multiplied by the (Total FuelRelated Cost (TFRC))
NoLoadCost($/Hour) = (NoLoadFuel*PerformanceFactor*TFRC)
Alternative No Load Calculations:
2) NoLoadCost($/Hour) =
(EconomicMinimumHeatInput*PerformanceFactor* (TFRC + VOM) "
(EconomicMinimumIncrementalCost $/MW! *EconomicMinimum MW ))
3) Note that if the unit of Variable Operations and Maintenance (VOM) cost is in terms of dollars per Equivalent Service Hours (ESH), the equation changes to:
NoLoadCost($/Hour) =
(EconomicMinimumHeadInput*PerformanceFactor*TFRC) + VOM
"(EconomicMinimumIncrementalCost($/MW!)*EconomicMinimum(MW))0No Load Rules for units using Average Heat RatesIncremental Energy Cost [Not defined in M15.
Incremental heat rate curve where only the B coeffiecient is nonzero.Heat Rate equals the MMBtu content of the heat input divided by the MWh of power output. The smaller the heat rate value the greater the efficiency. The heat rate can also be referred to as the inputoutput function.
Total Heat Rate=MMBtu/MWh=Heat Input/Net MW10% Adder on Cost Offer3OA Schedule 2, 1.1(c); OA Schedule 1, Sec 6.4.2 iiAllowable under OA Schedule 2; Limitations referenced in OA Schedule 1 Sec 6.4.2; For offers > $1000, adder must be lesser of 10% or $100. For offers >$2000, adder is $0.
For incremental cost <= $1,000/MWh, adder is equal to 10% of incremental cost.
For incremental cost > $1,000/MWh and <= $1,900/MWh, adder is equal to $100/MWh.
For incremental cost > $1,900/MWh and <=$2,000/MWh, adder is equal to $2,000 minus incremental cost.
For incremental cost > $2,000/MWh, adder is equal to zero.
NL=H(0)(FC+VOM(0)+EC(0))+0VOM0_hour
where:
NL is the no load cost in $/hour.
H(0) is the no load heat input, the intercept of the heat input curve, in MMBtu.
FC is the fuel cost at MW output of zero in $/MMBtu. For units that use a different starting fuel (e.g. coal units), the fuel in the no load cost calculation cannot be the fuel used during startup and synchronization, but must be the fuel used during normal operation.
VOM(0) is the sum of the variable operating cost and maintenance adder at zero MW in $/MMBtu.
VOMhour is the sum of the variable operating cost and maintenance adder at zero MW in $/hour.
EC(0) is the cost of emission credit allowances at zero MW in $/MMBtu.
ARemove. Require all sloped cost based offers to start at zero MW< .Remove. See 2c.Units that only operate block loaded (i.e. no dispatchable range) must be offered using an average heat rate and zero no load cost. All the hourly costs of operating the unit must be included in the incremental energy offer.Remove.
Replace with description of heat input curves:
Heat input curves, also called input/output curves, represent the amount of fuel used to produce energy. Heat input curves are developed based on net energy production. Heat input curves can be developed using historical data, performance test data or Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) documentation.
Observed fuel heat input and electric output data during normal operation or a performance test provide a direct measure of the heat input curve. A linear regression of the heat input on the energy output can provide an estimated polynomial curve. In the typical case, the heat input curve is a second order polynomial that applies to the entire operating output range of the unit.
H(MW)=X_20MW0^2+X_1MW+X_0
where:
H(MW) is the fuel input in MMBtu per hour required to generate power in MW over a defined period.
MW is the output level of the unit.
X2, X1 and X0 are the polynomial coefficients to be estimated through a linear regression.
When based on historical data, heat input curves must be developed using data points during times in which the resource was operating above its physical minimum level (e.g. do not include data points when the resource was in starting, soaking or shutdown mode).
DC^' (MW)=H^' (MW)[FC(MW)+0VOM0_fuel (MW)+EC(MW)]+0VOM0_output (MW)+OC(MW)
where:
C (MW) represents the short run marginal cost curve for the unit, varying with the MW output of the unit, in $/MWh.
H (MW) is the incremental heat rate curve at MW in MMBtu/MWh.
FC is the fuel cost at MW in $/MMBtu.
VOM(MW) is the sum of the variable operating cost and the maintenance adder at MW in $/MMBtu. VOM can be included either in $/MMBtu (VOMfuel) or in $/MWh (VOMoutput).
EC(MW) is the cost of emission credit allowances at MW in $/MMBtu.
OC(MW) is the opportunity cost at MW in $/MWh.
H^' (MW)=2X_2MW+X_1
where:
H (MW) is the incremental heat rate as a function of MW output level in MMBtu/MWh.
MW is the output level of the unit.
X2 and X1 are the coefficients of the heat input curve.
H^' (0MW0_i )=(H(0MW0_i )H(0MW0_(i1) ))/(0MW0_i0MW0_(i1) )
where:
H (MW) is the incremental heat rate as a function of MW output level in MMBtu/MWh.
MWi and MWi1 are two output segment endpoints.
H(MW) is the heat input as a function of MW output level in MMBtu.
Remove equation.
CTs shall use OEM supplied values for cyclic starting factors, and cyclic peaking factors and formulas even if the CT technology is no longer being built. Only OEMspecified cyclic starting and peaking factors can be applied to the Maintenance Adder of the unit s costbased offer. If the OEM documentation does not specify a cyclic starting factor and/or cyclic peaking factor, then the cyclic starting factor and/or cyclic peaking factor shall be zero.Remove. Heat input curve already defined.
Heat Input equals a point on the heat input curve (in MMBtu/hr) describing the resource s operational characteristics for converting the applicable fuel input (MMBtu) into energy (MWh).
See 4aStatus quo plus:
Market Sellers can choose to update the heat input curve instead of using performance factors. When that choice is made the performance factor is set to one (1).
Status quo plus:
Performance factors have to be calculated for the entire year, by month or by season (e.g. summer/winter). Performance factors cannot be applied inconsistently (i.e. applied during the summer months and not during the winter months).
5bPerformance FactorsM15, Section 2.25c5dPerformance Factor data/periodPerformance Factor methods.Performance Factor is the calculated ratio of actual fuel burn to either theoretical fuel burn
(design heat input) or other current tested heat input. Actual burn may vary from standard burn
due to factors such as unit age or modification, changes in fuel properties, seasonal ambient
conditions, etc.
FThe Performance Factor shall be calculated on either the total fuel consumed or a monthly spot check test basis. The Performance Factor for nuclear and steam units shall be reviewed (and updated if changed) at least once every twelve months. The Performance Factors for combustion turbine ( CT ), diesel units, and combinedcycle ( CC ) units shall be updated at least once during:
" Twelve months, or
" The year in which a unit reaches 1,000 accumulated running hours since its last
Performance Factor update, whichev<er represents a longer period, not to exceed five years.
Requests for exemptions from these periods should be submitted to PJM and the MMU for evaluation pursuant to Section 2.3. The overall Performance Factor can be modified by a seasonal Performance Factor to reflect ambient conditions.
The calculated performance factor may be superseded by estimates based on sound engineering judgment. If the period during which estimated performance factors are used exceeds three months, documentation concerning reasons for the override must be maintained and available for review.
There are three options available for use in determining a unit s performance factor:
1. Total Fuel
2. Separate
3. Fixed start approach
Status quoHeat Rate equals the MMBtu content of the heat input divided by the MWh of energy output. The smaller the heat rate value the greater the efficiency.
Total Heat Rate=MMBtu / MWh = Heat Input / Net MW
Status quo plus:
Units can have offers based on incremental heat rates using a sloped function, stepped function or block loaded.
The sloped function is the continuous first derivative of the heat input function. Units offered using a sloped function must select the use offer slope option in Markets Gateway. Generators offered using a sloped function must start their incremental offer curve with a zero MW segment. The incremental heat rate at zero MW is the y axis intercept of the incremental heat rate function (the incremental heat rate when MW = 0.).
The stepped incremental heat rate curve is derived from heat input curves, and direct measurements at different discrete output levels. Units offered using a stepped function must not select the use offer slope option in Markets Gateway. Generators offered using a stepped function should submit a nonzero first MW segment.
The heat rate of a block loaded offer is equal to the total heat input needed to run the unit divided by the total output.
Covered in 6a2Status quo documented in Schedule 2 and Manual 15.M15, Section 2.2, 2.2.1M15, Section 2.2.3tOATT
Incremental Energy Offer shall mean offer segments comprised of a pairing of price (in dollars per MWh) and megawatt quantities. The Incremental Energy Offer must be a nondecreasing function.
Manual 15 and OA Schedule 2
The incremental energy cost is the cost in dollars per MWh of providing an additional MWh from a synchronized unit.. It consists primarily of the cost of fuel, as determined by the unit s incremental heat rate (adjusted by the performance factor) times the fuel cost. It also includes operating costs, maintenance adders, emissions allowances, taxes, tax credits, and energy market opportunity costs.pOA Schedule 2, OATT and Manual 15
No Load Cost is the hourly energy cost required to theoretically operate a synchronized unit at zero MW. It consists primarily of the cost of fuel, as determined by the unit s no load heat (adjusted by the performance factor) times the fuel cost. It also includes operating costs, maintenance adders, emissions allowances and taxes.
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